Journal of Pacific Archaeology http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal <p>The <em>Journal of Pacific Archaeology</em> is an international peer-reviewed journal that publishes research on the archaeology of the islands and continental margins of the Pacific Ocean, both northern and southern hemispheres. There are two issues per year, appearing online in January and July with print editions appearing soon thereafter.</p> New Zealand Archaeological Association en-US Journal of Pacific Archaeology 1179-4704 Hiri: Archaeology of Long-Distance Maritime Trade Along the South Coast of Papua New Guinea - Skelly & David http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/239 Ben Shaw ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-19 2018-02-19 9 1 79 80 LiDAR Imagery Confirms Extensive Interior Land-Use on Tutuila, American Sāmoa http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/250 <p>Analysis of LiDAR imagery for Tutuila, American Sāmoa, confirms extensive modification of the interior landscape.<br />Using both field-generated maps and feature descriptions as a guide, we identify numerous terraces and other probable<br />feature types in LiDAR images for three areas of Tutuila. Our results are applicable across the island.</p> Ethan E. Cochrane Joseph Mills ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-19 2018-02-19 9 1 70 78 Ancient DNA evidence for the introduction and dispersal of dogs in New Zealand http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/219 <p>When people first arrived in New Zealand around 700 years ago, they brought their dogs (<em>Canis familiaris</em>) with them. To investigate the introduction and dispersal of dogs across the country we generated twenty-three new complete, or nearly complete, mitogenomes from ancient DNA from dog teeth sampled from four early archaeological sites in New Zealand and from one archaeological site in the southern Cook Islands. When considered together with fourteen previously reported mitogenomes from the New Zealand colonisation era site of Wairau Bar these sequences reveal a striking lack of mitochondrial genetic diversity in early New Zealand dogs. Our analysis shows that a group of closely-related dogs were brought to New Zealand, probably from an East Polynesian source population, and that these dogs and their offspring were widely dispersed throughout the country during the colonisation process. This pattern is consistent with the current model of rapid colonisation of New Zealand undertaken by highly mobile groups of people.</p> Karen Greig James Boocock Melinda S. Allen Richard Walter Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-19 2018-02-19 9 1 1 10 Coastal and Inland Settlement on Raiʻatea (Society Islands) During the Development/Expansion, Classic, and Post-Contact Phases http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/224 <p>The Society Islands hold a central place in archaeological models of Central Eastern Polynesia colonization and social complexity, given their spatial importance as a gateway into CEP from the west. Archaeological fieldwork in the Societies has had a patchy distribution, with most recent studies largely focusing on the Classic Phase in the Windward Island group, disallowing regional syntheses. Inland and coastal Raiʻatea, (Leeward Society Islands) were excavated and dated in order to develop a local chronology. Analysis of artifact and faunal assemblages, in conjunction with settlement patterns, contextualize the Raiatean cultural chronology within the regional archipelago-wide cultural sequence. Finally, a suite of lab-based analyses (micro-fossil analysis, wood charcoal identifications, land snail identification) are used to tentatively model human-landscape interactions through time. With this new corpus of 14C dates, we now have evidence for coastal Raiatean sites dating to the late Expansion and the late Classic to Early Post-Contact phase. Data from inland sites indicate complex the construction of a sizeable<strong> </strong>ritual center, including several community level temple structures with notable architectural elaboration, in the late Classic Period. This correlates well with regional archipelago-wide settlement pattern shifts during the Classic Phase.</p> Jennifer G. Kahn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-19 2018-02-19 9 1 25 43 New taxonomic records and regional trends for the Marquesan prehistoric marine fishery, Eiao Island, Polynesia http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/228 <p><strong></strong>Eiao Island (39.2 km<sup>2</sup>, 577 m elevation), situated at the northern extent of the Marquesas Archipelago, features rocky and steep coastlines with few sheltered embayments that allow easy access to the sea and marine resources. We report the first evidence of prehistoric fishing practices from Eiao Island based on three inland sites (possibly dating from the 14<sup>th</sup> to 17<sup>th</sup> centuries), and explore variation in fish exploitation (NISP = 1021; MNI = 157). All previous archaeological fishing records from the archipelago are from coastal sites, with inland Eiao Island assemblages offering comparative data on site location and taxonomic composition. The Eiao Island fish bone assemblages are dominated by piscivorous taxa, specifically grouper (Serranidae). Few tuna, mackerel and bonito (Scombridae) remains were recovered from the Eiao Island assemblages, compared to reports from Ua Pou, Tahuata and Ua Huka. New family-level taxonomic records added for the archipelago include: bonefish (Albulidae), requiem sharks (Carcharhinidae), butterflyfish (Chaetodontidae), flagtail (Kuhliidae), damselfish (Pomacentridae) and rabbitfish (Siganidae). These results further contribute to our understanding of prehistoric Marquesan fishing practices and allow elucidation of subsistence in coastal vs. inland settings, variability in taxonomic composition between islands of the archipelago, and importantly inform on human-environment interactions in East Polynesia.</p> Ariana Lambrides Marshall Weisler Michel Charleux ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-19 2018-02-19 9 1 44 62 The Field of War: LiDAR Identification of Earthwork Defences on Tongatapu Island, Kingdom of Tonga http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/231 <p class="paragraph">Warfare and conflict are associated with complex societies in in Polynesia where competition and coercion were common in island chiefdoms. In prehistoric Oceania, Tonga was unique for an Archaic state that under the Tu'i Tonga dynasty established control over an entire archipelago from A.D. 1200 to A.D. 1799 prior to a prolonged period of warfare. Lidar data was used to identify earthwork fortifications over the entirety of Tongatapu and to examine the conflict landscape using lidar-derived attributes in tandem with archaeological and historical information. The distribution of earthwork defences indicates a complex history of conflict and political machinations across Tongatapu beginning with the Tu’i Tonga chiefs at Lapaha, but resulting in a mid-19th century civil war ending with a new royal dynasty. Fortifications offer important evidence of social-political change, and the heritage condition of earthwork defences, many of which are under threat from development, was assessed with lidar. </p> Phillip Anthony Parton Geoffrey Clark Christian Reepmeyer David Burley ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-19 2018-02-19 9 1 11 24 Editorial http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/245 Ethan E Cochrane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-19 2018-02-19 9 1 v v Archaeological Reconnaissance and the First Radiocarbon Dates From Simbo Island, Western Province, Solomon Islands http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/222 Recent archaeological fieldwork on the island of Simbo in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands has identified several new prehistoric sites. Here, we present the results of our research along with the first radiocarbon dates from Simbo. These dates and associated ceramic sherds provide a chronological and stylistic link to other islands with post-Lapita pottery and is an important step for understanding the human occupational history of the island, as well as filling a data gap in the Western Solomons. Hannah Haas Todd J. Braje Matthew Lauer Scott M. Fitzpatrick Lawrence Kiko Grinta Ale'eke ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-19 2018-02-19 9 1 63 69 The Cult of the Birdman: Religious Change at ‘Orongo, Rapa Nui (Easter Island) http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/198 <p>On the island of Rapa Nui the Cult of the Birdman reflected a very visible expression of political competition and cooperation at the island-wide level. This paper synthesizes recent archaeological and chronological information for the cult’s central site – ‘Orongo, in order to document the temporal shift in ideology from an emphasis on lineage autonomy to a more integrated leadership. While Rapa Nui was experiencing internal pressures from the loss of arable land and territory reconfiguration, brought on by soil nutrient depletion and limited rainfall, we hypothesize it was only the events associated with repeated European contact that were sufficiently disruptive to initiate rapid social change at the collective level. One social response was a realignment of ideological values represented by the formation of the Cult of the Birdman.  The first cult activities, in front of the stone houses at ‘Orongo, occurred during the early AD1600s.  Activities intensified near AD1800 possibly due to the negative impacts of European contact and it is hypothesized that stone house construction occurred at this time.</p> Taylor Robinson Christopher M Stevenson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-06 2017-09-06 9 1 88 102 What is that bird? Pros and cons of the interpretations of Lapita pottery motifs. http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/199 <p>While Lapita pottery has fascinated researchers for more than half a century the interpretation of specific designs remains a difficult task that has only been rarely undertaken due to the speculative and contentious nature of such analysis. Here I attempt a tentative interpretation of a design that may help in the analysis of Lapita motifs. The example used is a relatively complex bird-shaped pattern, unidentified so far in the Lapita period, which it is argued may represent a number of specific species.</p><p class="western" style="font-weight: normal;" lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em><br /></em></span></span></p> Arnaud Noury ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-06 2017-09-06 9 1 79 87 Excavations on Motupore Island, Central District, Papua New Guinea - Allen, Swadling & Rye http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/233 Jim Rhodes ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-06 2017-09-06 9 1 108 108 New Radiocarbon Ages Clarify Chronology of Waimea Plains Māori Settlement and Dry Agronomy, Northern Te Waipounamu http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/225 Ian G. Barber ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-06 2017-09-06 9 1 103 107 Māori Cordage from Te Wao Nui a Tiriwa, Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/208 <p>Tāmaki Paenga Hira (Auckland War Memorial Museum) holds a number of Māori archaeological textiles from cave and rockshelter sites in Aotearoa New Zealand. The textiles presented here are a cordage collection from Te Wao Nui a Tiriwa (Waitakere Ranges), Auckland. The cord fragments are manufactured with <em>whiri</em> (plaited) and <em>miro</em> (twisted) structures. The diversity of structural attributes reveals the use of a range of materials, strand forms and dimensions to manufacture cords. A range of local resources were used at all sites for plaited cords, however, the twisted cords are all made from the same plant species, <em>harakeke</em> (<em>Phormium tenax</em>, New Zealand Flax). The artefacts appear to be functional items such as lashing, binding and fishing lines. The exception is a plait made with human hair. In the main, the types of <em>whiri</em> and <em>miro</em> cords in the Te Wao Nui a Tiriwa collection are represented in other archaeological cordage assemblages in Aotearoa. This article provides comprehensive technical information which contributes to our understanding of Māori cordage technology and provides data important for future comparative textile studies.</p><p> </p> Lisa Mckendry ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-06 2017-09-06 9 1 44 52 Archaeological Charcoal Analysis in New Zealand http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/205 <p>Charcoal is well preserved and abundant in many New Zealand archaeological sites. When identified to species it provides a means of reconstructing past vegetation communities adjacent to occupation sites. However, the way charcoal deposits accumulated needs to be considered before species identifications are converted into vegetation reconstructions. Here a number of examples from New Zealand archaeological sites illustrate how charcoal identification when combined with a consideration of the contexts from which samples are derived allow inferences to be made about human interaction with the fire histories of past vegetation communities.</p> Rod Wallace Simon J Holdaway ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-06 2017-09-06 9 1 17 30 Skeletal and dental health: the bioarchaeology of the human skeletons from the Sigatoka Sand Dunes Site, VL 16/1, Viti Levu, Fiji http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/221 <p>In this paper, we examine the health, diet, and lifestyle of the early inhabitants of Fiji using non-specific and specific indicators of health recorded in 42 adult and six subadult skeletons excavated at the Sigatoka Sand Dunes site, VL 16/1, on Viti Levu, one of the largest samples of prehistoric skeletons from Fiji. Because the dates of the Sigatoka cemetery may coincide with contact with later intrusions of people from regions located to the west of Fiji, our research has the potential to inform on the health of prehistoric Fijians during a time of potential stress. Limited comparisons with skeletal series from Remote Oceania for understanding the health of the early inhabitants of tropical Pacific Islands are also made. This is the first study that focuses exclusively on the health of the people interred in the Sigatoka cemetery. With some notable exceptions, few differences were observed in comparisons of skeletal and dental indicators of health in adult males and females from Sigatoka, differences that can be attributed to gender-related cultural practices (e.g., kava use in males), dietary differences, and age. Regional comparisons indicate the early inhabitants of Fiji were relatively healthy and robust people. Unexpectedly, no evidence of yaws was found in the Sigatoka skeletons, a disease that was highly prevalent in Fiji and the western Pacific when the first Europeans arrived. Limited observations of deciduous dental pathology indicate good health<em> in utero</em> and during infancy.</p> Michael Pietrusewsky Michele Toomay Douglas Rona M. Ikehara-Quebral ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-06 2017-09-06 9 1 63 78 Late Pleistocene Colonisation of the Eastern New Guinea Islands? The Potential Implications of Robust Waisted Stone Tool Finds from Rossel Island on the Long Term Settlement Dynamics in the Massim Region http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/234 Robust waisted stone tools were recently discovered on Rossel Island, the easternmost island in the Massim region of eastern Papua New Guinea. These are the first waisted tools to have been found in the Massim, but they are otherwise known from Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene contexts in New Guinea and Australia, two of the major landmasses which comprised the Sahul supercontinent. The Rossel tools are described and compared to other waisted assemblages from across Sahul, the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Islands, with the morphological and technological attributes of the Rossel assemblage similar to some of the earliest comparative examples. Although undated, it is suggested that the waisted tools from Rossel Island belong to a previously undocumented Late Pleistocene stone tool tradition in the Massim, at a time when many of the islands were much larger or formed a continuation of the New Guinea mainland. The implications of a potential Late Pleistocene time depth for the colonisation of the Massim islands are discussed. Ben Shaw ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-06 2017-09-06 9 1 1 16 A Review of Archaeological Māori Canoes (Waka) Reveals Changes in Sailing Technology and Maritime Communications in Aotearoa/New Zealand, AD 1300–1800 http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/235 We compare ethnological views of Māori canoes (<em>waka</em>) of the first colonisation period with those of the European contact period, and then describe diverse archaeological <em>waka</em> from the interim period. The aim is to reconstruct basic design elements of whole canoes and to suggest their relative ages. Variations in form relate to differences in sailing ability and we refer to scientific performance testing of a range of model canoe hulls and sails. We find that through time technological change in waka correspond to other changes in New Zealand archaeology including demographic and social shifts, and the contraction of interaction spheres. The first canoe-builders in New Zealand adjusted to a new environment. The country became isolated within East Polynesia, but there were widespread communications and capable sailing canoes on the New Zealand coast. Through time, with a shift from multihulls to monohulls and changes in hull form, we see a general decline in the sailing performance of canoes and the development of new types more suited to paddling and downwind sailing. However, notwithstanding this trend, outrigger canoes which could sail well persisted into late pre-European times in both the north and south of the country. Geoffrey Irwin Dilys Johns Richard G.J. Flay Filippo Munaro Yun Sung Tim Mackrell ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-06 2017-09-06 9 1 31 43 Visualising Hawaiian Sacred Sites: The archives and J.F.G. Stokes’s pioneering archaeological surveys, 1906–1913 http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/214 In the early 1900s, Australian-born archaeologist John F.G. Stokes was the first to extensively use modern surveying techniques and photography to document Hawaiian archaeological sites. Stokes carried out fieldwork for a Bishop Museum-based research program driven by interests in Polynesian origins and Hawaiian religious change, focusing specifically on the monumental temple sites called heiau in Hawaiian. Using a sample of the visual record of plan maps and photographs from Stokes’s work, we examine how Stokes represented sacred sites, including the variable level of architectural detail offered. Stokes’s reliance on Native Hawaiian informants is notable, as it may have played an important role in shaping his view of the archaeological landscape. Stokes’s survey record provides an important dataset for understanding the paradigms at work in Polynesian archaeology in the early 20th century, and the influences of this work in subsequent approaches to monumentality in the archipelago and beyond. James Flexner Mara A. Mulrooney Mark D. McCoy Patrick V. Kirch ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-02 2017-03-02 9 1 63 76 The Head-hunters of the North and the Polynesian Shadow: Thor Heyerdahl’s skull-collecting act on Fatu Hiva, Marquesas Islands, 1937 http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/215 This paper addresses Thor Heyerdahl’s skull-collecting act on Fatu Hiva in 1937 by approaching it from its historical context. Particular attention is paid to craniology as a scientific method, its purpose and the strong belief in its reliability during this period. It is also argued that the use of unauthorised collecting of human remains in contemporary travelogues, as elements of literary suspense and vehicles for the protagonist’s bravery, shows that the practice was largely socially accepted. Skull-collecting was viewed by the collector, from the perspective of a conservative world view, as a heroic act of protection and preservation. Victor Melander ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-02 2017-03-02 9 1 77 87 From Pessimism to Collaboration: The German Frobenius-Expedition (1938–1939) to Australia and the representation of Kimberley art and rock art http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/216 In 1938 and 1939 the <em>Institut für Kulturmorphologie</em>, based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, conducted an ethnographic expedition into the remote Kimberley in Western Australia. Despite some earlier activities and publications, this expedition represents the first dedicated effort to conduct detailed and extensive ethnographic work in the region. It was also the first endeavour to specifically focus on the recording of rock art images and related ethnographic information. Over the last decades, the importance of this expedition, the respective publications and the related collections in Germany and Australia have been repeatedly recognised, particularly in relation to the perception and understanding of Kimberley rock art. However, systematic and collaborative community-based research has not been conducted. Therefore, the collection and the related ethnographic information have not been properly assessed and have even been misrepresented. Recent collaborative efforts between the relevant Aboriginal <em>Wandjina Wunggurr</em> communities and researchers in Australia and Germany have allowed entering a new phase in the engagement with these materials with valuable academic and non-academic outcomes. In this paper, we provide some preliminary critical and contextual assessments of the literature that is related to this expedition and how it represented and conceptualised Aboriginal art and rock art. Martin Porr Kim Doohan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-02 2017-03-02 9 1 88 99 ‘The Dawn’ of Australian Archaeology: John Mulvaney at Fromm’s Landing http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/217 When Vere Gordon Childe returned to Australia in 1957 after thirty-six years abroad, he despaired at the lack of research into Australia’s Aboriginal past. Australian archaeology was the domain of curators and stone tool collectors whose work was embedded in evolutionary assumptions and questionable practices. In the final weeks of his life, on 16 September 1957, Childe met and befriended the historian and archaeologist John Mulvaney. This paper draws on their brief encounters to reflect on the state of archaeology in Australia in the 1950s, immediately before the boom in archaeological research in the 1960s that revolutionised the conventional narrative of Australian history. Through a close reading of the early years of Mulvaney’s career it argues that the excavations at Fromm’s Landing from 1956 to 1963 acted as a catalyst for research and marked the dawn of a new era for Australian Aboriginal archaeology. The excavation involved women and men, historians and archaeologists, teachers and students, and it produced the artefacts that underpinned Mulvaney’s landmark 1961 article, where he reviewed existing research and posed the large, continental questions that would dominate the next decade of archaeological investigation. Billy Griffiths ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-02 2017-03-02 9 1 100 111 Pacific Prehistory and Theories of Origins in the Work of Reverend William Ellis http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/209 The involvement of Christian missionaries in the development of Pacific archaeology often remains on the fringes of the discipline’s history. This paper aims to contribute to this area of research by exploring the ideas, methods and legacy of one missionary theorist: Reverend William Ellis (1794–1872). Through an exploration of Ellis’s work in Polynesia, specific focus will be directed to the ways in which he read interpretations of Pacific prehistory in material culture, linguistics, oral traditions and island landscapes. Ellis’s theories attracted interest from eminent individuals such as Charles Darwin and John Dunmore Lang, creating a complex network of knowledge exchange between missionaries, Pacific Islanders and armchair ethnographers. The involvement of missionaries in early ethnology arguably forms an integral part of the foundations of Pacific archaeology. Investigating and analysing the content and context of work by those such as Ellis has value for understanding the development of the discipline. Eve Haddow ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-02 2017-03-02 9 1 1 11 Notes and Queries on Anthropology: Its influence on Pacific prehistoric archaeology at the turn of the 20th century http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/210 Instructions for travellers on the collection of archaeological objects were published in the first 1874 edition of <em>Notes and Queries on Anthropology</em>. The archives of the Royal Geographical Society, the Royal Anthropological Institute, and the British Museum were searched to investigate what influence <em>Notes and Queries on Anthropology</em> had on pioneering field archaeologists in the Pacific at the turn of the 20th century, and how this contributed to the beginnings of prehistoric archaeological practice. This paper assesses the archaeological legacies left to us from the expeditions of three early pioneers: Frederick William Christian (1867–1934), William Scoresby Routledge (1859–1939) and Katherine Routledge (1866–1935). Michelle Richards ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-02 2017-03-02 9 1 12 22 How Dare Our ‘Prehistoric’ Have a Prehistory of Their Own?! The interplay of historical and biographical contexts in early French archaeology of the Pacific http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/211 At the turn of the 19th and 20th century, France was securing its presence as a colonial power in the Pacific. Some of the early French settlers quickly began to take notice of relics: petroglyphs, monumental buildings, buried ceramics and human remains were those most commented upon. A rich and sometimes surprisingly detailed literature appears, describing these objects and their antiquity. In the interpretations proposed, a recurrent theme emerges: the apparent need to appeal to waves of migrations or cataclysms to explain traces of a prehistory and ancient ‘civilisations’ where ‘primitive’ people now live – even more so in the so-called region of Melanesia. In this paper, the ideas of three principal authors in the early archaeology of the region are presented: Gustave Glaumont, Marius Archambault and Jean-Baptiste Suas. The ways these authors conceptualised the past of the islands will be discussed in light of the complex relations between their own biographical histories and the intellectual context of the time. It appears that the colliding of the paradigms developed in the new field of prehistory on the one side and in regards to representation of Pacific peoples on the other side created a somewhat confusing intellectual situation for the first archaeologists of Melanesia. Emilie Dotte-Sarout ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-02 2017-03-02 9 1 23 34 Early German-language Analyses of Potsherds from New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/212 In December 1905, the Austrian anthropologist and medical practitioner Rudolf Pöch unearthed a number of potsherds from a refuse heap in Wanigela, south-eastern New Guinea. Four years later, Otto Meyer, a German Catholic missionary, discovered decorated pottery fragments on Watom Island in the Bismarck Archipelago. His illustrated accounts of these fragments are now recognised as the earliest descriptions of Lapita pottery. Although Meyer and Pöch shared a common language and examined similar materials from neighbouring parts of the Pacific at much the same time, their interpretations of these materials differed significantly. By comparing and contrasting their analyses of prehistoric pottery and speculations about its origins, I hope to help contextualise early archaeological work in the Pacific and shed new light on the development of ideas about the settlement of the region. Hilary Howes ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-02 2017-03-02 9 1 35 46 Thomas G. Thrum and John F.G. Stokes: Australian archaeologists in paradise in the early twentieth century http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/213 Thomas George Thrum (1842–1932) and John Francis Gray Stokes (1875–1960) were both born in Newcastle, New South Wales but spent most of their adult lives in Hawaii with long associations with the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. Thrum came to Hawaii in 1853 and in later life published details of over 500 Hawaiian heiau (temples). His first specifically archaeological paper was published in 1900. Stokes came to Hawaii in 1899 to work for the Bishop Museum’s Director, William T. Brigham, and for many years his position was as a museum ethnologist, carrying out archaeological surveys and studying material culture. After Brigham retired, Stokes was never in favour with the new Director Herbert E. Gregory. He was let go by the Museum in 1929. In Stokes’s own view he had an ‘unmade reputation’. But his own contribution to Thrum’s status as the ‘Dean of Hawaiian Antiquarians’ has been misunderstood, which is why in part his significance as Hawaii’s first professional archaeologist has been underestimated. Matthew Spriggs ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-02 2017-03-02 9 1 47 62 Editorial http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/218 Emilie Dotte-Sarout Matthew Spriggs ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-02 2017-03-02 9 1 v v Ecological Consequences of Pre-Contact Harvesting of Bay of Islands fish and Shellfish, and Other Marine Taxa, Based on Midden Evidence http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/195 Midden contents – especially those that have associated dates – can provide compelling evidence concerning the effects of human harvesting on the diversity, distribution, abundance, and mean individual-size of shallow-water marine stocks. Archaeological Site Recording Scheme Site Record Forms for the 767 Bay of Islands middens as of August 2014 were summarised according to contents; these included 28 calibrated dates associated with 16 individual sites. The oldest site was first settled possibly as early as the 13th Century. By the time of European contact, the population of the Bay of Islands was possibly as great as 10,000 (over half the resident population today), yet it seems that the 500 years of harvesting pressure left no lasting legacy on Bay of Islands’ fish and shellfish resources – with the probable exception of the fishing-out of local populations of the Cook Strait limpet, and possibly the overfishing of hapuku in shallow waters. Marine mammal and seabird bones were only reported from Early and Early/Middle Period middens, consistent with the rapid extirpation and extinction of taxa after human arrival in the northeast of the North Island. John Booth ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-09-27 2016-09-27 9 1 73 86 Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History - Anderson, Binney & Harris http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/202 Harry Allen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-09-27 2016-09-27 9 1 87 88 Finding Meaning and Identity in New Zealand Buildings Archaeology: The Example of ‘Parihaka’ House, Dunedin http://pacificarchaeology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/176 In 2015 a wooden two-storey 1880 villa in Dunedin, New Zealand, was examined and recorded prior to demolition. While unremarkable from the street, due to its very visible location on a steep hillside it was effectively built with two frontages, as the rear wall repeated the architectural features of the front wall. This ‘double-fronted villa’ design was a notable adaptation to ensure public respectability. However, further investigation of the building revealed a fanlight above the front door that had been covered over in the 1940s, and this was signwritten with the original name of the house: ‘Parihaka.’ Parihaka is a small settlement in Taranaki, and is nationally significant as the location of Maori passive resistance to the land confiscation policies of the Colonial Authorities in the late nineteenth century. The original Irish owners of the house were showing their solidarity with the Maori land protestors in a very public way. The buildings archaeology of this small villa has therefore exposed prima facie evidence of apparently contradictory efforts to both achieve respectability and to oppose the establishment. This example is used to explore the potential for both buildings archaeology and the archaeology of identity in New Zealand, and the tensions and contradictions that can arise from this combined study. Peter Petchey Sean Brosnahan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-09-27 2016-09-27 9 1 26 42