Journal of Pacific Archaeology <p>The <em>Journal of Pacific Archaeology</em> is an international peer-reviewed journal that publishes research on the archaeology of the islands and continental margins of the Pacific Ocean, both northern and southern hemispheres. There are two issues per year, appearing online in January and July with print editions appearing soon thereafter.</p> en-US (Ethan Cochrane) (Tim Thomas) Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 -0700 OJS 60 Mangahawea Bay Revisited: a reconsideration of the stratigraphy and chronology of site Q05/682 <p>The Mangahawea Bay Site (Q05/682) on Moturua Island in the Bay of Islands was excavated in 1981. A single radiocarbon date from the lower levels returned an age of 1162-1439 AD (95.4% confidence) but the results of the excavation have never been fully reported. Despite some uncertainty about the age and nature of the stratigraphy, the site has long been regarded in the New Zealand archaeological community as a significant example of early occupation in the north. New excavations at Mangahawea Bay in 2017 have clarified the nature of the stratigraphy and provided a more reliable set of radiocarbon determinations. This recent work demonstrates that the site was first occupied for a short period in the early to mid-fourteenth century AD. Following abandonment of the first settlement there is evidence for ongoing, intermittent, activities in the Bay until historic times, but no further occupation at the site itself. These new results provide a foundation for future analysis of the substantial body of excavation material from the 1981 and 2017 excavations.</p> James Robinson, Andrew Blanchard, Matutaera Te Nana Clendon, Justin Maxwell, Nicholas Sutton, Richard Walter ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 06 Dec 2018 15:56:47 -0800 Diversity in early New Guinea pottery traditions <p>The initial appearance of pottery on mainland New Guinea has been an elusive and sometimes controversial topic. A range of factors contribute to this conundrum including landscape transformation and disturbance where relevant archaeology may be undetectable, or misinterpreted, and a lack of sound evidence from various sites that could facilitate comparative analysis. Moreover, the preeminence of the Lapita pottery sequence and its clear dispersal model has set expectations and perceptions concerning the oldest known pottery on New Guinea, which sometimes has resulted in scanty finds being interpreted on <em>a priori</em>conceptual grounds rather than according to substantive or direct local evidence. Presented here is a catalogue of pottery recovered in 2004-05 from Lachitu, Taora, Watinglo and Paleflatu. These co-located north coast Papua New Guinea (PNG) sites provide material where the issues of chronostratigraphic integrity are directly confronted. Pottery from Lachitu and Taora was previously claimed as among the earliest ceramics on mainland PNG. However, the dating of results presented in this study suggests a more recent context for the introduction and manufacture of pottery, with a variety of diagnostic attributes pointing to a complex involvement of diverse peoples.</p> Phillip Beaumont, Sue O'Connor, Mathieu Leclerc, Ken Aplin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 29 Sep 2018 05:23:15 -0700 Lesley Montague Groube , 1937–2018: A Biographical Sketch Foss Leach, Helen Leach ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 13 Aug 2018 00:00:00 -0700 The Oxford Handbook of Prehistoric Oceania - Cochrane & Hunt Mark D McCoy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 12 Aug 2018 19:56:02 -0700 Geochemical and radiometric analyses of archaeological remains from Easter Island’s moai (statue) quarry reveal prehistoric timing, provenance, and use of fine–grain basaltic resources <p>Pacific and Rapa Nui (Easter Island) volcanologists and geologists have set the stage for the island’s archaeologists working in lithic sourcing studies by providing practical data regarding the island geodynamic activity, geomorphological formation and dating, and the macroscopic, microscopic, and elemental proprieties of Easter Island stone. Drawing upon this information, and the research collaboration between two active archaeological projects on Rapa Nui – the Easter Island Statue Project and the Rapa Nui Geochemical Project –  this article presents: 1) a synthesis of a 5–meter field excavation of <em>moai </em>RR–001–156 in Rano Raraku, the <em>moai </em>statue quarry; 2) a 14C assessment which dates human presence around <em>moai </em>RR–001–156; 3) 31 basalt quarry and source site descriptions; and 4) laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry and principal component analyses of 21 archaeological and 117 geological samples. Our results trace the prehistoric transfer of basaltic resources from the Ava o’Kiri and Pu Tokitoki complex to the <em>moai </em>quarry at Rano Raraku during the AD 1400’s. This conclusion helps us to better understand sociopolitical and economic interaction during Rapa Nui prehistory.  </p> Dale Fredrick Simpson Jr., Jo Anne Van Tilburg, Laure Dussubieux ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 12 Aug 2018 19:24:01 -0700 On the Identification of Opportunistic Hammer-Dressing Tools from the Pacific <p>Roger Duff’s (1977) typology of Polynesian adze heads has become a referential guide for archaeological research in the Pacific, as demonstrated by contemporary efforts to quantitatively scrutinize the validity of Duff’s morphological types (Shipton et al. 2016).&nbsp; Although discussions of morphologically distinct adze head types occasionally point out technological idiosyncrasies, an exclusively technological approach to adze head production is virtually non-existent in the New Zealand literature. This paper uses a replicative approach to hammer-dressing tools, a common manufacturing method in Pacific adze technology, to create an analogue for a previously misidentified tool type recovered from the early New Zealand site of Shag River Mouth.</p> Matt Swieton ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 12 Aug 2018 19:22:41 -0700 Life, Death and Care on the Otago Goldfields: A Preliminary Glimpse. In 2017 two unmarked graves were disturbed by tree removal in the Cromwell Cemetery in Central Otago, New Zealand. These were the burials of two men who probably died in the 1890s, and examination of their remains indicated that both were manual workers with evidence of strong musculature and also numerous injuries; evidence of the harsh working life led by many in the nineteenth century Otago goldfields. This paper considers these two individuals, the evidence for their lived experiences, and the implications of their injuries within a 'bioarchaeology of care' model. It also provides a basic outline of the appropriate handling of such accidental discoveries of historic-era human burials within legal and professional standards. Peter Petchey, Hallie Buckley, Rachel Scott ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 12 Aug 2018 19:21:33 -0700 Obsidian from the Jacquinot Bay area, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea. <p>The paper describes the analysis by portable XRF (pXRF) of 44 pieces of obsidian from six archaeological sites around Jacquinot Bay in the Pomio District of East New Britain, Papua New Guinea. One piece is possibly from a middle Lapita pottery context, but the remainder are undated but almost certainly post-Lapita in age. The pXRF analysis attributes all pieces to New Britain sources: 41 from Mopir and 3 from Willaumez Peninsula. The dominance of the Mopir source supports a relatively late date for the obsidian’s arrival in the Jacquinot Bay area. When considered in relation to a stemmed obsidian tool from Pakia village inland to the north of Jacquinot Bay, the results suggest that future work in this region area may feed into wider discussions on the control of resources and the social function of obsidian in the Papua New Guinea island provinces</p> Jim Specht, Jason Kariwiga, Anne Ford ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 12 Aug 2018 19:19:01 -0700 Fishing strategies at an open-coast fishing site in east-Northland, New Zealand <p>About 200 items collected at Archaeological Site Q04/44 at Paraenui Bay, just north of Bay of Islands, New Zealand, are associated with apparently late pre-Contact fishing. Although the collection methodology was not systematic, the assemblage offers novel insights into fishing strategies. The significant presence of small (≤25 mm, usually one-piece) fishhooks could mean leatherjackets <em>Meuschenia scaber</em>were a focus, their skin having been used as surrogate sandpaper in pre-Contact Northland. The presence of more than 30 large (almost certainly northern) spiny dogfish <em>Squalus griffini</em>spines point to fishing sorties into deep waters (100 m and beyond).</p> John Booth, C E Booth, W E Booth, R S Booth, H T Rihari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 12 Aug 2018 19:17:40 -0700 Excavations at Kahukura, Murihiku <p>Archaeological data from coastal village sites are critical to our understanding of culture change in southern New Zealand. Here we report on excavations from Kahukura (G47/128), a sedentary coastal village occupied around the time of the cessation of moa-hunting. Results document an attempt to continue the sedentary village way of life in an environment of increasing isolation from long-distance exchange networks. Imported stone resources are scarce, and there is a trend away from terrestrial hunting and a specialisation in intensive local exploitation strategies. Excavations at Kahukura have resulted in a reinterpretation of the influential ‘transient village’ and ‘resource network’ models of culture change in southern New Zealand. We show that after the abandonment of transient villages, changes in settlement patterns, mobility and subsistence were not as abrupt as either model has suggested.</p> Richard Walter, Emma Brooks, Karen Greig, Jessie Hurford ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 12 Aug 2018 00:00:00 -0700 Hiri: Archaeology of Long-Distance Maritime Trade Along the South Coast of Papua New Guinea - Skelly & David Ben Shaw ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Feb 2018 01:33:42 -0800 LiDAR Imagery Confirms Extensive Interior Land-Use on Tutuila, American Sāmoa <p>Analysis of LiDAR imagery for Tutuila, American Sāmoa, confirms extensive modification of the interior landscape.<br />Using both field-generated maps and feature descriptions as a guide, we identify numerous terraces and other probable<br />feature types in LiDAR images for three areas of Tutuila. Our results are applicable across the island.</p> Ethan E. Cochrane, Joseph Mills ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Feb 2018 01:33:42 -0800 Ancient DNA evidence for the introduction and dispersal of dogs in New Zealand <p>When people first arrived in New Zealand around 700 years ago, they brought their dogs (<em>Canis familiaris</em>) with them. To investigate the introduction and dispersal of dogs across the country we generated twenty-three new complete, or nearly complete, mitogenomes from ancient DNA from dog teeth sampled from four early archaeological sites in New Zealand and from one archaeological site in the southern Cook Islands. When considered together with fourteen previously reported mitogenomes from the New Zealand colonisation era site of Wairau Bar these sequences reveal a striking lack of mitochondrial genetic diversity in early New Zealand dogs. Our analysis shows that a group of closely-related dogs were brought to New Zealand, probably from an East Polynesian source population, and that these dogs and their offspring were widely dispersed throughout the country during the colonisation process. This pattern is consistent with the current model of rapid colonisation of New Zealand undertaken by highly mobile groups of people.</p> Karen Greig, James Boocock, Melinda S. Allen, Richard Walter, Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Feb 2018 01:33:41 -0800 Coastal and Inland Settlement on Raiʻatea (Society Islands) During the Development/Expansion, Classic, and Post-Contact Phases <p>The Society Islands hold a central place in archaeological models of Central Eastern Polynesia colonization and social complexity, given their spatial importance as a gateway into CEP from the west. Archaeological fieldwork in the Societies has had a patchy distribution, with most recent studies largely focusing on the Classic Phase in the Windward Island group, disallowing regional syntheses. Inland and coastal Raiʻatea, (Leeward Society Islands) were excavated and dated in order to develop a local chronology. Analysis of artifact and faunal assemblages, in conjunction with settlement patterns, contextualize the Raiatean cultural chronology within the regional archipelago-wide cultural sequence. Finally, a suite of lab-based analyses (micro-fossil analysis, wood charcoal identifications, land snail identification) are used to tentatively model human-landscape interactions through time. With this new corpus of 14C dates, we now have evidence for coastal Raiatean sites dating to the late Expansion and the late Classic to Early Post-Contact phase. Data from inland sites indicate complex the construction of a sizeable<strong> </strong>ritual center, including several community level temple structures with notable architectural elaboration, in the late Classic Period. This correlates well with regional archipelago-wide settlement pattern shifts during the Classic Phase.</p> Jennifer G. Kahn ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Feb 2018 01:33:41 -0800 New taxonomic records and regional trends for the Marquesan prehistoric marine fishery, Eiao Island, Polynesia <p><strong></strong>Eiao Island (39.2 km<sup>2</sup>, 577 m elevation), situated at the northern extent of the Marquesas Archipelago, features rocky and steep coastlines with few sheltered embayments that allow easy access to the sea and marine resources. We report the first evidence of prehistoric fishing practices from Eiao Island based on three inland sites (possibly dating from the 14<sup>th</sup> to 17<sup>th</sup> centuries), and explore variation in fish exploitation (NISP = 1021; MNI = 157). All previous archaeological fishing records from the archipelago are from coastal sites, with inland Eiao Island assemblages offering comparative data on site location and taxonomic composition. The Eiao Island fish bone assemblages are dominated by piscivorous taxa, specifically grouper (Serranidae). Few tuna, mackerel and bonito (Scombridae) remains were recovered from the Eiao Island assemblages, compared to reports from Ua Pou, Tahuata and Ua Huka. New family-level taxonomic records added for the archipelago include: bonefish (Albulidae), requiem sharks (Carcharhinidae), butterflyfish (Chaetodontidae), flagtail (Kuhliidae), damselfish (Pomacentridae) and rabbitfish (Siganidae). These results further contribute to our understanding of prehistoric Marquesan fishing practices and allow elucidation of subsistence in coastal vs. inland settings, variability in taxonomic composition between islands of the archipelago, and importantly inform on human-environment interactions in East Polynesia.</p> Ariana Lambrides, Marshall Weisler, Michel Charleux ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Feb 2018 01:33:41 -0800 The Field of War: LiDAR Identification of Earthwork Defences on Tongatapu Island, Kingdom of Tonga <p class="paragraph">Warfare and conflict are associated with complex societies in in Polynesia where competition and coercion were common in island chiefdoms. In prehistoric Oceania, Tonga was unique for an Archaic state that under the Tu'i Tonga dynasty established control over an entire archipelago from A.D. 1200 to A.D. 1799 prior to a prolonged period of warfare. Lidar data was used to identify earthwork fortifications over the entirety of Tongatapu and to examine the conflict landscape using lidar-derived attributes in tandem with archaeological and historical information. The distribution of earthwork defences indicates a complex history of conflict and political machinations across Tongatapu beginning with the Tu’i Tonga chiefs at Lapaha, but resulting in a mid-19th century civil war ending with a new royal dynasty. Fortifications offer important evidence of social-political change, and the heritage condition of earthwork defences, many of which are under threat from development, was assessed with lidar. </p> Phillip Anthony Parton, Geoffrey Clark, Christian Reepmeyer, David Burley ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Feb 2018 01:33:41 -0800 Editorial Ethan E Cochrane ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Feb 2018 01:33:41 -0800 Archaeological Reconnaissance and the First Radiocarbon Dates From Simbo Island, Western Province, Solomon Islands Recent archaeological fieldwork on the island of Simbo in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands has identified several new prehistoric sites. Here, we present the results of our research along with the first radiocarbon dates from Simbo. These dates and associated ceramic sherds provide a chronological and stylistic link to other islands with post-Lapita pottery and is an important step for understanding the human occupational history of the island, as well as filling a data gap in the Western Solomons. Hannah Haas, Todd J. Braje, Matthew Lauer, Scott M. Fitzpatrick, Lawrence Kiko, Grinta Ale'eke ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 19 Feb 2018 01:33:41 -0800 The Cult of the Birdman: Religious Change at ‘Orongo, Rapa Nui (Easter Island) <p>On the island of Rapa Nui the Cult of the Birdman reflected a very visible expression of political competition and cooperation at the island-wide level. This paper synthesizes recent archaeological and chronological information for the cult’s central site – ‘Orongo, in order to document the temporal shift in ideology from an emphasis on lineage autonomy to a more integrated leadership. While Rapa Nui was experiencing internal pressures from the loss of arable land and territory reconfiguration, brought on by soil nutrient depletion and limited rainfall, we hypothesize it was only the events associated with repeated European contact that were sufficiently disruptive to initiate rapid social change at the collective level. One social response was a realignment of ideological values represented by the formation of the Cult of the Birdman.  The first cult activities, in front of the stone houses at ‘Orongo, occurred during the early AD1600s.  Activities intensified near AD1800 possibly due to the negative impacts of European contact and it is hypothesized that stone house construction occurred at this time.</p> Taylor Robinson, Christopher M Stevenson ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Sep 2017 20:00:06 -0700 What is that bird? Pros and cons of the interpretations of Lapita pottery motifs. <p>While Lapita pottery has fascinated researchers for more than half a century the interpretation of specific designs remains a difficult task that has only been rarely undertaken due to the speculative and contentious nature of such analysis. Here I attempt a tentative interpretation of a design that may help in the analysis of Lapita motifs. The example used is a relatively complex bird-shaped pattern, unidentified so far in the Lapita period, which it is argued may represent a number of specific species.</p><p class="western" style="font-weight: normal;" lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman,serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em><br /></em></span></span></p> Arnaud Noury ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Sep 2017 20:00:06 -0700 Excavations on Motupore Island, Central District, Papua New Guinea - Allen, Swadling & Rye Jim Rhodes ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Sep 2017 20:00:06 -0700 New Radiocarbon Ages Clarify Chronology of Waimea Plains Māori Settlement and Dry Agronomy, Northern Te Waipounamu Ian G. Barber ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Sep 2017 20:00:06 -0700 Māori Cordage from Te Wao Nui a Tiriwa, Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand <p>Tāmaki Paenga Hira (Auckland War Memorial Museum) holds a number of Māori archaeological textiles from cave and rockshelter sites in Aotearoa New Zealand. The textiles presented here are a cordage collection from Te Wao Nui a Tiriwa (Waitakere Ranges), Auckland. The cord fragments are manufactured with <em>whiri</em> (plaited) and <em>miro</em> (twisted) structures. The diversity of structural attributes reveals the use of a range of materials, strand forms and dimensions to manufacture cords. A range of local resources were used at all sites for plaited cords, however, the twisted cords are all made from the same plant species, <em>harakeke</em> (<em>Phormium tenax</em>, New Zealand Flax). The artefacts appear to be functional items such as lashing, binding and fishing lines. The exception is a plait made with human hair. In the main, the types of <em>whiri</em> and <em>miro</em> cords in the Te Wao Nui a Tiriwa collection are represented in other archaeological cordage assemblages in Aotearoa. This article provides comprehensive technical information which contributes to our understanding of Māori cordage technology and provides data important for future comparative textile studies.</p><p> </p> Lisa Mckendry ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Sep 2017 20:00:06 -0700 Archaeological Charcoal Analysis in New Zealand <p>Charcoal is well preserved and abundant in many New Zealand archaeological sites. When identified to species it provides a means of reconstructing past vegetation communities adjacent to occupation sites. However, the way charcoal deposits accumulated needs to be considered before species identifications are converted into vegetation reconstructions. Here a number of examples from New Zealand archaeological sites illustrate how charcoal identification when combined with a consideration of the contexts from which samples are derived allow inferences to be made about human interaction with the fire histories of past vegetation communities.</p> Rod Wallace, Simon J Holdaway ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Sep 2017 20:00:05 -0700 Skeletal and dental health: the bioarchaeology of the human skeletons from the Sigatoka Sand Dunes Site, VL 16/1, Viti Levu, Fiji <p>In this paper, we examine the health, diet, and lifestyle of the early inhabitants of Fiji using non-specific and specific indicators of health recorded in 42 adult and six subadult skeletons excavated at the Sigatoka Sand Dunes site, VL 16/1, on Viti Levu, one of the largest samples of prehistoric skeletons from Fiji. Because the dates of the Sigatoka cemetery may coincide with contact with later intrusions of people from regions located to the west of Fiji, our research has the potential to inform on the health of prehistoric Fijians during a time of potential stress. Limited comparisons with skeletal series from Remote Oceania for understanding the health of the early inhabitants of tropical Pacific Islands are also made. This is the first study that focuses exclusively on the health of the people interred in the Sigatoka cemetery. With some notable exceptions, few differences were observed in comparisons of skeletal and dental indicators of health in adult males and females from Sigatoka, differences that can be attributed to gender-related cultural practices (e.g., kava use in males), dietary differences, and age. Regional comparisons indicate the early inhabitants of Fiji were relatively healthy and robust people. Unexpectedly, no evidence of yaws was found in the Sigatoka skeletons, a disease that was highly prevalent in Fiji and the western Pacific when the first Europeans arrived. Limited observations of deciduous dental pathology indicate good health<em> in utero</em> and during infancy.</p> Michael Pietrusewsky, Michele Toomay Douglas, Rona M. Ikehara-Quebral ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Sep 2017 20:00:05 -0700 Late Pleistocene Colonisation of the Eastern New Guinea Islands? The Potential Implications of Robust Waisted Stone Tool Finds from Rossel Island on the Long Term Settlement Dynamics in the Massim Region Robust waisted stone tools were recently discovered on Rossel Island, the easternmost island in the Massim region of eastern Papua New Guinea. These are the first waisted tools to have been found in the Massim, but they are otherwise known from Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene contexts in New Guinea and Australia, two of the major landmasses which comprised the Sahul supercontinent. The Rossel tools are described and compared to other waisted assemblages from across Sahul, the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Islands, with the morphological and technological attributes of the Rossel assemblage similar to some of the earliest comparative examples. Although undated, it is suggested that the waisted tools from Rossel Island belong to a previously undocumented Late Pleistocene stone tool tradition in the Massim, at a time when many of the islands were much larger or formed a continuation of the New Guinea mainland. The implications of a potential Late Pleistocene time depth for the colonisation of the Massim islands are discussed. Ben Shaw ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Sep 2017 20:00:05 -0700 A Review of Archaeological Māori Canoes (Waka) Reveals Changes in Sailing Technology and Maritime Communications in Aotearoa/New Zealand, AD 1300–1800 We compare ethnological views of Māori canoes (<em>waka</em>) of the first colonisation period with those of the European contact period, and then describe diverse archaeological <em>waka</em> from the interim period. The aim is to reconstruct basic design elements of whole canoes and to suggest their relative ages. Variations in form relate to differences in sailing ability and we refer to scientific performance testing of a range of model canoe hulls and sails. We find that through time technological change in waka correspond to other changes in New Zealand archaeology including demographic and social shifts, and the contraction of interaction spheres. The first canoe-builders in New Zealand adjusted to a new environment. The country became isolated within East Polynesia, but there were widespread communications and capable sailing canoes on the New Zealand coast. Through time, with a shift from multihulls to monohulls and changes in hull form, we see a general decline in the sailing performance of canoes and the development of new types more suited to paddling and downwind sailing. However, notwithstanding this trend, outrigger canoes which could sail well persisted into late pre-European times in both the north and south of the country. Geoffrey Irwin, Dilys Johns, Richard G.J. Flay, Filippo Munaro, Yun Sung, Tim Mackrell ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Sep 2017 20:00:05 -0700 Visualising Hawaiian Sacred Sites: The archives and J.F.G. Stokes’s pioneering archaeological surveys, 1906–1913 In the early 1900s, Australian-born archaeologist John F.G. Stokes was the first to extensively use modern surveying techniques and photography to document Hawaiian archaeological sites. Stokes carried out fieldwork for a Bishop Museum-based research program driven by interests in Polynesian origins and Hawaiian religious change, focusing specifically on the monumental temple sites called heiau in Hawaiian. Using a sample of the visual record of plan maps and photographs from Stokes’s work, we examine how Stokes represented sacred sites, including the variable level of architectural detail offered. Stokes’s reliance on Native Hawaiian informants is notable, as it may have played an important role in shaping his view of the archaeological landscape. Stokes’s survey record provides an important dataset for understanding the paradigms at work in Polynesian archaeology in the early 20th century, and the influences of this work in subsequent approaches to monumentality in the archipelago and beyond. James Flexner, Mara A. Mulrooney, Mark D. McCoy, Patrick V. Kirch ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 02 Mar 2017 19:43:48 -0800 The Head-hunters of the North and the Polynesian Shadow: Thor Heyerdahl’s skull-collecting act on Fatu Hiva, Marquesas Islands, 1937 This paper addresses Thor Heyerdahl’s skull-collecting act on Fatu Hiva in 1937 by approaching it from its historical context. Particular attention is paid to craniology as a scientific method, its purpose and the strong belief in its reliability during this period. It is also argued that the use of unauthorised collecting of human remains in contemporary travelogues, as elements of literary suspense and vehicles for the protagonist’s bravery, shows that the practice was largely socially accepted. Skull-collecting was viewed by the collector, from the perspective of a conservative world view, as a heroic act of protection and preservation. Victor Melander ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 02 Mar 2017 19:43:48 -0800 From Pessimism to Collaboration: The German Frobenius-Expedition (1938–1939) to Australia and the representation of Kimberley art and rock art In 1938 and 1939 the <em>Institut für Kulturmorphologie</em>, based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, conducted an ethnographic expedition into the remote Kimberley in Western Australia. Despite some earlier activities and publications, this expedition represents the first dedicated effort to conduct detailed and extensive ethnographic work in the region. It was also the first endeavour to specifically focus on the recording of rock art images and related ethnographic information. Over the last decades, the importance of this expedition, the respective publications and the related collections in Germany and Australia have been repeatedly recognised, particularly in relation to the perception and understanding of Kimberley rock art. However, systematic and collaborative community-based research has not been conducted. Therefore, the collection and the related ethnographic information have not been properly assessed and have even been misrepresented. Recent collaborative efforts between the relevant Aboriginal <em>Wandjina Wunggurr</em> communities and researchers in Australia and Germany have allowed entering a new phase in the engagement with these materials with valuable academic and non-academic outcomes. In this paper, we provide some preliminary critical and contextual assessments of the literature that is related to this expedition and how it represented and conceptualised Aboriginal art and rock art. Martin Porr, Kim Doohan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 02 Mar 2017 19:43:48 -0800